Ebens lecture

As i sald last week

I believe this class is important because every teacher have to deal with a variety of personalities and issues when standing in front of a class.

An understanding of educational psychology can help a teacher to get their message across effectively to a variety of different learners.

it can also help a teacher to understand why a student may be struggling in class and how they can help them to learn. 

And I want to recommend that if you are teaching and you did not study education try to enroll for any diploma courses in education or pgde

FOR YOU TO UNDERSTAND MORE ABOUT EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

YOU CAN ALSO READ ONLINE ( GLOBAL VILLAGE😍😀😀😀😀)

As we all know the issue of discipline has been one of the most discussed issue facing African schools?

And I would like this topic to be a kind of discussion topic tonight

As i do always remind teachers, we must mold holistic and well-rounded individuals.

Remember education also talk about CHARACTER NOT JUST KNOWLEDGE ALONE

The applications of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development emphasize the affective side of our students to make them the kind of individuals we want them to be.

As i do always remind teachers, we must mold holistic and well-rounded individuals.

Remember education also talk about CHARACTER NOT JUST KNOWLEDGE ALONE

The applications of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development emphasize the affective side of our students to make them the kind of individuals we want them to be.

Understanding this will make us avoid producing “intellectual giants” but “emotional dwarfs” individuals. 

One of the reason why I love Kohlberg’s theory is that it’s somehow aline with african culture

He stated that moral growth begins early in life and continues in stages throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

Kohlberg’s theory includes three levels of moral reasoning.

The three levels that Kohlberg described are

Level 1: Pre-Conventional morality, Level

2: Conventional Morality, and Level

3: Post-Conventional morality.

Each of these levels are divided into two stages, for a total of six stages.

We are going to be discussing the above tonight and how we as african teachers can apply this in our classroom and school at large

Level 1: Pre-Conventional Morality

Morality, typically seen in young children between the ages of 4 and 10 years old.

This level consists of stage 1 and stage 2.

Some children may develop from stage 1 to stage 2 more quickly than others, so it is important to take into consideration that some students may develop at different rates than others in your classroom.

In stage 1 of this level, children tend to obey the rules only to avoid punishment.

In stage 2, a child’s actions are based mainly on consideration for what other people can do for them. They tend to follow rules out of self-interest.

Let me explain this better

This stage talk about Obedience-and-Punishment Orientation

And it focuses on the child’s desire to obey rules and avoid being punished.

For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished; the worse the punishment for the act is, the more “bad” the act is perceived to be

Stage 2 expresses the “what’s in it for me?” position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest.

Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, only to the point where it might further the individual’s own interests.

As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a “you scratch my back, and I’ll scratch yours” mentality. An example would be when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore.

The child asks “what’s in it for me?” and the parents offer the child an incentive by giving him an allowance.

Level 2: Conventional Morality
Children typically reach the level 2, Conventional morality, between ages 10 and 13. Many individuals never move beyond this level in adulthood. This level includes Stage 3 and Stage 4.

In stage 3,

children evaluate morality based on the person’s motives behind their behavior. Children in this stage and can take different circumstances into account when deciding if an act was moral or not. Children in this stage often want to help others, can judge others’ the intentions, and can begin to develop their own ideas regarding morality.

At stage 4, individuals become more concerned with respecting authority, maintaining social order, and doing their duty within society. In this stage, one considers an act morally wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law.

Level 2: Conventional Morality
Children typically reach the level 2, Conventional morality, between ages 10 and 13. Many individuals never move beyond this level in adulthood. This level includes Stage 3 and Stage 4.

In stage 3,

children evaluate morality based on the person’s motives behind their behavior. Children in this stage and can take different circumstances into account when deciding if an act was moral or not. Children in this stage often want to help others, can judge others’ the intentions, and can begin to develop their own ideas regarding morality.

At stage 4, individuals become more concerned with respecting authority, maintaining social order, and doing their duty within society. In this stage, one considers an act morally wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law.

Level 3: Post-Conventional morality

Students may reach level 3, Post-Conventional morality, by early adolescence or young adulthood, though many individuals never reach this level. You may have some high school students who have attained this level of moral development, however. Level 3 consists of stage 5 and stage 6.

In stage 5, people begin to value the will of the majority, as well as the well-being of society. Though people at this stage can recognize that there are times when human need and the law are conflicted, they typically believe that it is better when people follow the law.

By stage 6, people become more concerned with what they personally feel is right, even if it conflicts with the law. At this stage, people act according to their own internalized standards of morality, even when it contradicts established laws.

Level 3: Post-Conventional morality

Students may reach level 3, Post-Conventional morality, by early adolescence or young adulthood, though many individuals never reach this level. You may have some high school students who have attained this level of moral development, however. Level 3 consists of stage 5 and stage 6.

In stage 5, people begin to value the will of the majority, as well as the well-being of society. Though people at this stage can recognize that there are times when human need and the law are conflicted, they typically believe that it is better when people follow the law.

By stage 6, people become more concerned with what they personally feel is right, even if it conflicts with the law. At this stage, people act according to their own internalized standards of morality, even when it contradicts established laws.

Most preschool and some kindergarten students are still in the first stage of moral development, according to Kohlberg’s theory.

In this stage, it is important to begin to lay the groundwork to encourage moral behaviors.

In stage 1, young children are primarily motivated to behave appropriately simply to avoid being punished for misbehaving. By understanding this stage of moral development, teachers can help to guide their student’s moral development by setting a code of conduct for the classroom to encourage good behavior.

For young children who are still in the first stage of moral development, it is important to set clear guidelines for behavior, and clear consequences for misbehavior. It is important to stay consistent with the code of conduct and punishment system throughout the school year.

For children, it is important to implement clear punishments, such as loss of privileges, for students who break your classroom rules.

This could include taking away free choice time for students who break the rules.

You can also start to offer rewards for children who follow the rules at this level. Like the one above

As they progress toward stage 2 of level 1, they will become more motivated to follow the rules if an enticing reward is offered.

Here are a few creative reward you can also use in your classroom

👍🏿Pick a game at recess

👍🏿Sit with a friend

👍🏿Teach the class a favorite game

👍🏿Take a homework pass

👍🏿Be the teacher’s helper for the day

👍🏿Draw on the chalkboard

👍🏿Choose any class job for the week

👍🏿Use the teacher’s chair

👍🏿Take home a class game for a night

👍🏿Do half of an assignment😀

You can drop anyone you know

Kohlberg’s Stage 2 and Early primary school

By stage 2, young children become more motivated to behave and follow the rules if they are offered a reward for doing so. Implementing a system to reward elementary students who follow the classroom rules and who exhibit helpful behaviors in the classroom can go a long way in encouraging moral behavior.

At this stage, children understand that behaviors that are punished are considered “bad,” and that behaviors that are rewarded are considered “good.”

Students also begin to learn that different people have different points of view at this stage.

They consider what is best for the individual (themselves) to be what is right, however, they also begin to see the need for mutual benefit.

They begin to learn that others will treat them well if they in turn treat others well. They begin to see morality in terms of helping others for their own self-interest.

At this stage, it is a good idea to introduce classroom activities that encourage cooperation between students. Games and assignments that require students to help one another in order to succeed will help students at this stage to further develop their moral reasoning skills.

COLLABORATION IS KEY AT THIS STAGE 💯💯💯

Kohlberg’s Stage 3 and upper primary/junior School

Most children reach stage 3 between the ages of 10 and 13. In this stage, children begin to think more about the other people around them.

The consider how their behavior affects other people, and how other people perceive them.

At this stage, you can help to strengthen your students’ moral character by allowing them to help you to create a code of conduct for the classroom. This lets the students be partially responsible for the classroom rules, which they will be expected to follow.

At this stage, students begin to think more about how their actions affect others.

They may be less inclined to follow school rules if they can’t see a clear benefit to following the rules.

By allowing students in this stage to have a hand in creating the code of conduct by discussing how different behaviors affect other students, students will be more willing to follow the rules.

At this stage, students may start to become unwilling to blindly follow rules if they don’t understand the reasoning behind them.

At this stage, it is also important to continue to introduce activities and assignments that encourage students to work together toward a common goal to further strengthen your students’ moral character.

Older students may begin to reach level 4 by the time they reach the end of junior school or the beginning of senior school.

Allow ample time for group projects and activities that give students at different stages of development the opportunity to work together and to learn how their behaviors affects others in a social context.

In conclusion

  1. Let the students realize that they are responsible for their moral development. Present them different anecdotes or examples that will inspire and teach them to be morally responsible with their own actions.
  2. Give the students opportunities to hear different perspectives especially in deciding what is right or wrong. Have discussions, forums, debates, etc. about certain issues. This will be more meaningful if the issues are related to the students’ lives.
  3. Discuss issues in a multicultural or global perspective. Present them how are certain issues tackled in other cultures. Through this, students can widen their understanding and learn to respect different views and beliefs.

4 Most primary and secondary school students are said to be in the stages 1 and 4 of moral development. We can actually use this in maintaining classroom management, behavior modification and establishing routines inside the classroom.

  1. Be an example to the students. We must walk our talk so to speak. Values are caught than taught. So as teachers, we must present values and attitudes worth emulating.
  2. It is easier said than done. Moral development is useless if not put into action. One of the criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory is that he emphasized more on the reasoning and not on the practicability of morality. This is where Gilligan comes in. Let us teach our student the value of care for other people, as well as for themselves.

Kohlberg’s six stage model of moral development is an excellent tool for understanding students at different stages of moral understanding. By understanding this theory of moral development, teachers can help to guide the moral characters of their students and help them to become the best that they can be.

GOODNIGHT all

Any ENUGU EDUCATOR AROUND

SEE YOU TOMORROW

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